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.Fragments will not germinate on culture plates, so theycould contaminate a room that appears to be free from mold whenattempts are made to culture fungi from air samples.The small sizeNotes to Pages 83 89157 of the fragments relative to whole spores, and their irregular shapes,would also hide these particles from investigators trained to countspores on microscope slides.28.M.Nikulin et al., Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 35, 182 188(1997).29.I.Yike et al., Mycopathologia 154, 139 152 (2002).An earlier studyon rats also found lung damage at high spore dosages: C.Y.Rao,D.B.Joseph and H.A.Burge, Applied and Environmental Microbiol-ogy 66, 2817 2821 (2000).30.Despite the criticisms of the original work by the CDC, Dorr Dear-born received funding from the National Institutes of Health topursue research on the animal model for IPH.Ruth Etzel is not di-rectly involved in this research effort.She was reassigned after theCDC s ruling and later began working for the Southcentral Founda-tion in Anchorage, a nonprofit corporation that provides healthcareand education services to the Alaskan Native community.31.Mortality and Morbidity Weekly Report 44, 67 & 73 74 (1995).32.S.M.Flappan et al., Environmental Health Perspectives 107, 927 930(1999).33.I.Dill, C.Trautmann and R.Szewzyk, Mycoses 40, 110 114 (1997).34.W.G.Sorenson, Environmental Health Perspectives 107, 469 472(1999).35.Croft, Jarvis, and Yatawara (1986).36.W.A.Croft et al., Journal of Environmental Biology, 23, 301 320(2002).This paper refers to the idea that, under certain environ-mental conditions, volatile mycotoxins could be released into theair.Croft works for the Environmental Diagnostic Group, a com-pany in Madison, Wisconsin, and is not affiliated with an academicinstitution.37.See http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/airpollution/mold/moldfacts.html.38.See chapter 4.39.I.Yike et al., Mycopathologia 156, 67 75 (2002).40.C.Barnes et al., Annals of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology 89, 2933 (2002).This study is discussed in chapter 3.chapter 6.Your Verdict, Please1.Ballard v.Fire Insurance Exchange, A Member of the Farmers Insur-ance Group, No.99-05252 (Texas Dist.Ct.345th Jud.Dist., TravisCity).2.Ronald s medical condition was referred to as  toxic encephalopa-thy, which did nothing to clarify the nature of the illness becauseNotes to Pages 89 97158 this is a general term that describes any disease of the brain result-ing from poisoning.3.I quote from comments made by Melinda Ballard at HarrisMartin sMold Litigation Conference held in San Antonio in October 2002.4.A.Hamilton, Time (July 2, 2001).5.L.Belkin, The New York Times Magazine (August 12, 2001).6.C.Grisales, The Austin American-Statesman (October 20, 2002).7.Losses in the billions of dollars have also been quoted by insurancecompanies in other states.Some analysts contend, however, thatmuch of these losses were due to the poor performance of the in-dustry s investments in the stock market.By omitting details, invest-ment tribulations since 1999 could be concealed under the blanketof spores because the litigation happened to occur at the same time.8.Adding to its woes, Farmers Insurance was sued for $150 million in2002 by state regulators in Texas who claimed that the companywas using deceptive trade practices and overcharging customers.InNovember 2002, the company agreed to pay a $100 million settle-ment and reversed its decision to withdraw from the residential in-surance market.9.Grisales (October 20, 2002).10.Allison v.Fire Insurance Exchange, A Member of the Farmers Insur-ance Group, No.03-01-00717-CV (Texas Ct.App.3rd Dist., Austin).11.The power of personality tests to predict vocation is highly ques-tionable, as a high proportion of academics seem better suited towork in a carnival rather than a seat of higher learning.12.F.X.Finnigan, HarrisMartin Columns Mold (August 2002).13.There are certainly examples of buildings that become moldy afterchanges in ventilation, but the cause and effect relationship is usu-ally overstated.For example, Finnish researchers described the man-agement of a mold problem in school buildings that were heavilycontaminated after ventilation holes in wood flooring were pluggedto save energy costs: U.Haverinen et al., Environmental Health Per-spectives 107, 509 514 (1999).More importantly, the school buildingsalso had numerous construction defects, had been built in a verywet location, and had suffered major water damage after a fire.14.K.McAllister, Journal News [Hamilton, Ohio] (February 22, 2003).Animal Planet and the Discovery Channel featured Hunter duringtraining at the Florida Canine Academy.Mold dogs trained by BillWhitstine are now working in every major city in the United States.15.The quote comes from a report by Carmel Cafiero broadcast on 7News, WSVN-TV in Miami Ft.Lauderdale, Florida (January 31,2003).16.By  techniques I mean areas of inquiry that demand expertiseNotes to Pages 97 105159 with a certain suite of methods.The trend away from mycologists,phycologists, nematologists, and mammalogists is clear from a pe-rusal of job advertisements for biologists.Statistical analysis is un-necessary here; I am confident that few, if any, biologists will disa-gree with this assessment of the sociological change.John TylerBonner discussed the impact of these changes at Princeton Univer-sity in his autobiography Lives of a Biologist: Adventures in a Cen-tury of Extraordinary Science (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UniversityPress, 2002).The technological sophistication of the methods usedby a particular researcher is, of course, no indicator of market in-terest.My mentor Frank Harold once joked that, because most re-searchers had retooled their labs to run gels, my insistence onlearning things about fungi by poking their cells with glass pipets(which is exceedingly difficult) was no more relevant than the skillsof a wheelwright after the introduction of Ford s Model T.In mydefense, I note that Frank still spoke of his  radiogram by the timemost Americans owned a CD player.17.Daubert v.Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals (92 102), 509 U.S.579(1993).I quote from the Supreme Court s syllabus (or synopsis).Inhis opinion on Daubert, Supreme Court Chief Justice Rehnquistwrote that the justices were forced to  deal with definitions of sci-entific knowledge, scientific method, scientific validity, and peer re-view in short, matters far afield from the expertise of the judges.I defer to no one in my confidence in federal judges; but I amat a loss to know what is meant when it is said that the scientificstatus of a theory depends upon its  falsifiability, and I suspect thatsome of them will be, too.18.A.W.Campbell, HarrisMartin Columns Mold (November 2002).This is not a peer-reviewed article, but if you refer to my discussionof the paper by Croft in chapter 5 (note 36), you ll see that anec-dotal studies on mold and health also appear in low-status peer-reviewed journals.A study isn t necessarily authenticated by theprocess of peer review.19.W.A.Gordon, in Bioaerosols, Fungi, and Mycotoxins: Health Effects,Assessment, Prevention, and Control, edited by E.Johanning (Albany,New York: Eastern New York Occupational and EnvironmentalHealth Center, 1999), 94 98.20 [ Pobierz całość w formacie PDF ]