Home HomeeBooks.PL.Izrael.Szahak. Zydowskie.Dzieje.i.Religia. Polityka.Ĺťydzi.Izrael.Kultura.Cywilizacja.Historia.Państwo.Polska.Ojczyzna.Honor.Europa.Kresy.Rosja.Niemcy.Władza.Spisek.doda.Książka.Książki1505 1864, HistoriaPolski 1764 1864 3Masterton Graham, Masterton Vicki Saga historyczna Smak rajuFrom Satan's Crown to the Holy Grail Emeralds in Myth Magic and History by Diane Morgan (2007)Raymond F. Betts, Lyz Bly A History of Popular Culture; More of Everything, Faster and Brighter (2004)Carpet Monsters and Killer Spores A Natural History of Toxic Mold by Nicholas P Money (2004)Kiley Deborah Scaling Albatros. Historia kobiety, która przetrwała na otwartym morzuJohn Coleman We Fight For Oil, A History of US Petroleum Wars (2008)Gutberlet Bernd Ingmar 50 Największych kłamstw i legend w historii œwiatachmielewska Joanna Skarby

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.S.entry into the war, selected journalist and newspaper proprietorGeorge Creel to chair the committee to deal with this problem.The CPI s governing body (Creel and the secretaries of war, state,and the navy) met only once during the war.Creel saw the CPI s roleas a vital part of the war effort.He argued that this war, unlike previ-ous conflicts, was not purely a military struggle but a global contestbetween starkly opposed values and ideologies.The scale of theconflict, he contended, mandated an unprecedented and centrally co-ordinated propaganda effort to strengthen resolve at home and boosttroop morale in Europe.The CPI was, for Creel and his supporters, the voice created to plead the justice of America s cause beforethe jury of Public Opinion. It sent thousands of volunteer speak-ers across the country and distributed millions of posters, full-pagenewspaper ads, and pamphlets (the Red, White, and Blue Books) tohomes, newspaper offices, and workplaces explaining U.S.war aimsand emphasizing the superiority of America s moral arguments.CPI speakers were nicknamed the  Four Minute Men becausethey were trained to deliver talks lasting no more than four min-utes.They would appear at movie theaters to remind audiences ofthe importance of economizing at home, writing supportive lettersto U.S.troops abroad, and staying alert to the dangers of sabotage.Creel also ensured that schools, universities, and farms received aconstant stream of propaganda materials.Military equivalents of theFour Minute Men bolstered troop morale in Europe and were particu-larly active when Russia s withdrawal from the war early in 1918prompted fears of a wave of antiwar sentiment in the trenches.The CPI s activities raised accusations that the administrationsought to muzzle the press, indoctrinate the public, and suppressfree speech.The resumption of normal partisan politics in late 1918caused Creel to clash with the Republican 66th Congress, whichquickly shut off CPI funds and launched an investigation into itsfinances.Negative images of the CPI, especially its heavy-handedrhetoric and its encouragement of hyper-patriotism and vigilantism,would profoundly affect approaches to government propaganda inWorld War II.See also OFFICE OF WAR INFORMATION.COMMITTEE TO DEFEND AMERICA BY AIDING THE AL-LIES (CDAAA).Also known as the White Committee, the Com-mittee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies was active from May COMMITTEE TO DEFEND AMERICA FIRST " 671940 to October 1942.The group was formed by Kansas City news-paper editor William Allen White, Clark M.Eichelberger of theLeague of Nations Association, and others active in Eichelberger sNonpartisan Committee for Peace through Revision of the Neu-trality Law, such as banker Thomas Lamont and peace activist andpublic health specialist Frank Boudreau.Its original aim was to shapepublic opinion in favor of aid to the Allies: Great Britain, France,and other countries in Europe fighting Nazi Germany during WorldWar II.The CDAAA argued that if sufficient U.S.aid was supplied,this would keep the United States out of war.White served as national committee chair until January 1941,when he retired through a combination of ill health and disagreementover strategy.He was succeeded by Ernest W.Gibson, and then inspring 1941 by Eichelberger.The national committee was based inNew York City, with local and state chapters in every state and U.S.territory.There were also special divisions for women, youth, labor,artists, scientists, and the like.The committee communicated throughnewsletters, flyers, advertisements, radio spots, and rallies.It wasmainly supported by fund-raising activities and donations.The CDAAA never supported a declaration of war, though itwas generally supportive of moves by the Franklin D.Rooseveltadministration to provide more aid to Great Britain, such as thedestroyers-for-bases deal, Lend-Lease, and revision of the Neu-trality Acts.After September 1940, it campaigned against theAmerica First Committee.Members who felt by the spring of1941 that aid alone was not enough to ensure U.S.national securitybroke away to form Fight for Freedom, but CDAAA remainedclose to the views of the administration and the president until theattack on Pearl Harbor.After the United States entered the war, the CDAAA merged withthe Council for Democracy to form an organization called Citizensfor Victory: To Win the War, To Win the Peace.The aim was tofocus on issues of the postwar peace, but effectiveness as a lobbygroup was lost without the unifying issue and with members engagedin more urgent tasks related to the war effort.The organization of-ficially dissolved in October 1942.COMMITTEE TO DEFEND AMERICA FIRST.See AMERICAFIRST COMMITTEE. 68 " COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATESCOMMUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES (CPUSA).TheCPUSA was founded in 1919 by former members of the SocialistParty who had been expelled for supporting the Bolshevik revolu-tion.They included Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Claude McCay, JohnReed, and William Z.Foster [ Pobierz całość w formacie PDF ]