Home HomeeBooks.PL.Izrael.Szahak. Zydowskie.Dzieje.i.Religia. Polityka.Ĺťydzi.Izrael.Kultura.Cywilizacja.Historia.Państwo.Polska.Ojczyzna.Honor.Europa.Kresy.Rosja.Niemcy.Władza.Spisek.doda.Książka.KsiążkiMartin Folly Historical Dictionary of U.S. Diplomacy from World War I through World War II (2010)1505 1864, HistoriaPolski 1764 1864 3Masterton Graham, Masterton Vicki Saga historyczna Smak rajuFrom Satan's Crown to the Holy Grail Emeralds in Myth Magic and History by Diane Morgan (2007)Kiley Deborah Scaling Albatros. Historia kobiety, która przetrwała na otwartym morzuJohn Coleman We Fight For Oil, A History of US Petroleum Wars (2008)Gutberlet Bernd Ingmar 50 Największych kłamstw i legend w historii œwiataPeter Stearns Anxious Parents, A History of Modern Childrearing in America (2003)LeGuin Ursula K Opowiadania orsinianskie
 

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.An editorial comment accompanyingthe paper abstracts stated the condition clearly:  Marketing to children, teens andX ers is a huge opportunity (website  Youth power 1999: 7).The paperback Generation X (1964)  interviews with British mods androckers  lent its title to a punk rock band (1976); in the late 1980s a Canadianpsephologist used it for the generation born from 1964 onward, a meaningpopularized in Douglas Coupland s comic strip (and 1991 novel) of the samename.Generation X may be much smaller than that of the baby-boomers, butit has a lot more disposable income.It makes marketing sense to harness popularculture to the youth market.Quite exposed and carefully posedCasual in appearance and committed to social change fifty years before suchmarketing strategy aimed at youth, the young, particularly in the United States,found in the 1940s newly liberated territory at the seashore.Always a transitionzone between the known and the unknown, the measured and the measureless,the shore now became the beach, the bright sandy strip where the inhibitionsof civilization were cast aside.Both custom and costume were there strippeddown in the postwar era and it was a style event that announced this change.The bikini, named after the tiny Pacific atoll on which atomic testing was takingplace, was an abbreviated challenge to modesty and an assertion of physical well-being, which made its appearance in the summer of 1946.It was then that a Frenchclothing designer Louis Reard, formerly an automobile engineer, designed thistwo-piece bathing suit and convinced a fashion model to strut it out at a popularParisian swimming pool.Far removed from the two-piece costumes seen just beforeWorld War Two, the fashion was soon happily embraced by the young, svelte andhappily liberated (as much from the agonies of the war as from the restrictions ofhigh fashion).For centuries some men had enjoyed the privilege of the  malegaze  as attentive spectators of all that artists deemed feminine and alluring  buthere was the female nude  or near-nude, at least  in real time.And before longit was seen in feature-films too.The French film star Brigitte Bardot consented, atage 21, to be costumed in a bikini for the 1957 film And God Created Woman. New world of images 73Taboos on nudity had lingered on since the time a Renaissance pope addedfig leaves to the nude paintings then appearing.Both as a statement of personalfreedom and a mild act of defiance, the bikini-wearers little act of disclosure wasexpressive of a large change initiated by the young: the discarding of convention.With considerable rapidity, in less than two decades, people s appearancesunderwent striking change.From the carefully controlled, graceful movementof fashion models on the runways or catwalks at the annual shows of newcouturier clothing in Paris to the wild and sweat-producing gyrations of rockgroups like the Rolling Stones, the cultural attitudes of the 1960s and 1970s weresharply distinguished: managed poise opposed by youthful energy, the smoothprose of advertising in magazines and on television, in contrast to the verbaloutbursts on the street and at the rock concert.More than attitudes were discarded, however.The unfettered body was nownot only celebrated but publicized as  cheesecake and  beefcake. Thecurvaceous and the muscled had appeared in pictorial magazines since the 1950s,already strongly suggesting sexual prowess.On the screen that correlation hadbeen made in From Here to Eternity (1953).Wrapped in intense embrace on thebeach, as the waves lapped at their supine forms, Burt Lancaster, beefed up, andDeborah Kerr, toned down, opened the way for widespread viewing of theungarbed human condition.That same year Hugh Hefner produced Playboy, amagazine that popularized  and even legitimized to a degree  the nichemagazines referred to as  adult. As the centerfold of the very first issue, Hefnerused one of the nude photographs he had purchased of a model named NormaJean Baker, who would be brilliantly made over as Marilyn Monroe.Then, aphotograph of an unclothed young female became daily fare on page three ofthe British newspaper The Sun, first published in tabloid in 1969.The female body has long been a malleable as well as a marketable object,adorned, configured and appreciated according to perceptions of beauty by themale gazer.A comparison of a Rubens nude (early seventeenth century) and afully attired Gibson girl (late nineteenth century) will demonstrate whathappened to the female waist and hips as art objects.The flat-breasted gamin ofthe 1920s gave way to the well-molded, long-legged young woman of Americanfilms of the 1930s and 1940s.Her height was further accentuated by Britishdesigner Mary Quant s introduction of the mini-skirt in the 1960s.Quant s chiefmodel was nicknamed Twiggy, a choice metaphor for the long-legged, short-skirted woman who became fashionable at that time and so has remained.Men pretended at least to craft their own bodies.As one of the earliest ofthe modern body-builders who made the sport popular and entertaining in the1960s, Charles Gaines explained in Pumping Iron that  the body is an artmedium: malleable, capable of being aesthetically dominated and formedthe way clay is by a potter.A body builder in training is a kind of sculptor ofhimself (Gaines and Butler 1981: 43).As if in confirmation of Gainesargument, the Whitney Museum of Modern Art put on a brief show (brief ingarb and duration) entitled  Articulate muscle: the body as art in February1976, with Arnold Schwarzenegger as its principal mobile sculpture. 74 A History of Popular CultureEven though men were pumping iron around the world (the sport soon beingglobally popular in countries like France, Egypt, Iraq and Jamaica), body-building was never as popular as working out, where both men and womenexercised to tone their bodies, for the sake of both appearance and health.Regular and carefully programmed exercise were signs of what was called fitness,the physical contribution to well-being, matched by concern with nutrition andpsychological  stress management [ Pobierz całość w formacie PDF ]