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.B.III.5.1.21) and who bestows food (S.B.XII.8.2.16); (2) Mahadeva or Mahesa, another form of Agni, in all his eight forms (S.B.VI.l.3.10 et seq.); (3) Rudra, (4) Vishnu, (5) Vinayaka (Ganesha), (6) Skanda (Kartikeya) (S.V.B.I.4.31 et seq.); (7) the Lingam or Phallus (7.A.X.17) on whom they meditated during the daily Sandhya worship and who is the same as Shambhu riding on a bull, (8) Shiva (S.V.B.I.2.2).They also worshipped (9) the cow whom they called Bhagavati (A.B.V.5.2) and also (10) Indra, Varuna, Agni, Soma, Rudra, Pushan, the Ashvins, Surya and some other Deities.For purposes of attaining eternal bliss they worshipped Ratridevi (S.V.B.III.8) and this Ratridevi is described as a girl growing into womanhood who bestows happiness.She has long and flowing hair, has in her hand a noose.If she is pleased, then all other Devas are pleased.She being pleased, offers boons, but the worshipper must reject the same and then he will gain freedom from rebirth.This is the worship of Ratri; it requires no fasting and must be performed at night.The Mantras to be recited is the Ratri Sukta which commences with Ratri vakhyad (Rig Veda X.127.1) to be followed by aratri parthivam rajas.The Rig-Vidhana-Brahmana (IV.19) which follows the Sama-Vidhana-Brahmana declares that the Ratri Sukta must be recited; the worship; the worship must be performed as a Sthalipaka-Yajña.Ratri is substantially the same with, but in form different from, Vagdevi; and they are sometimes worshipped as one and the same ( Tait.Br.II.4.6.10 et seq.).The Ratri Sukta describes her as black (R.V.X.127.2-3).The portion of the Ratri Sukta which is included in the Khila portion of the Rig-Veda (R.V.Kh.25) calls Ratri Devi by the name of Durga and this Mantra appears in Taittiriya Aranyaka (X.1).She is described here, as the bearer of oblations; therefore, she is the same as Agni and as such she has tongues which are named as follows: (1) Kali, (2) Karali, (3) Manojava., (4) Sulohita, (5) Sudhumravarna, (6) Sphulingini, (7) Shucismita and these tongues loll out and by these tongues offerings are received (Grihya-Sangraha I.13.14).The Brihaddevata mentions that Aditi, Vak, Sarasvati and Durga are the same (II.79).In conformity with the Vaidik system the Tantrik system of worship acknowledges that Om is the supreme Bija (A.B.VII.3.6; II.l.2; V.5.7; A.A.II.3.8; Chh.Up.I.l.1 et seq.; 7.A.VII.8; X.63.21et seq.; Shakatayana, p.106 (Op-pert); Panini VIII.2.87; Br.D.II.127.133; G.B.IX.l.24; I.l.17.19; M.N.T.; II.32) and they also acknowledge and use the Hinkara of the Vedas pronounced Hum (S.B.I.4.1.2; IX.; A.B.III.2.12; L.S.S.I.10.25; I.1.27; II.1.4; IV.3.22).The rules and practice of Acamana, and the bath are exactly the same as will be found on a comparison of chapter V of the Mahanirvana Tantra with the Snanasutra of Gobhila.The Tantras prefer to use single compounds http://www.sacred-texts.com/tantra/sas/sas04.htm (20 of 22)07/03/2005 16:02:23Chapter Four: Tantra Shastra and Vedainstead of long sentences to express an idea and form one letter Mantras very much according to the Vaidik method.We also find the practice of Nyasa and Shuddhi foreshadowed in the Vedas as has been already mentioned.(See also S.B.VII.5.2.12).The principal Devi of the Veda is Sarasvati, who is called Nagna in the Nighantu, expressing nudeness, and also referring to that age of a woman when womanhood has not expressed itself.If we again take these ideas with that of the Sama-Vidhana-Brahmana, we have the almost complete form of a Devi who is called at the present day by the name of Kali.Another Devi whose worship is very popular at the present day is Durga, who has a lion for her carrier.It will have been observed that Vach turned herself into a lion, and after earnest solicitations went over to the Devas; and therefore, Vach and the lion are identically the same.We have already given references which show that Vach and Durga were the same; and these facts explain how Durga has a lion to carry her.The worship of Ratri is to be performed at night and therefore the worship of Kali must be a night performance; and therefore, must partake of all the features of a night performance; and these elements must be sought for in the Vaidik Atiratra.The Atiratra is a performance of three Paryyayas or rounds of four Stotras and Shastras in each and at the end of each libations are offered, followed by drinking of Soma.The same rules and practices as in the Atiratra are substantially followed in the worship of the Devi Kali, bhang being very largely used under the name of Vijaya and Amrita.It will be remembered that the Devi of the Atiratra is Sarasvati.The principal male Devata of the Tantras is Mahadeva named also Shiva, Mahesa, Shambhu, Soma and also in a different aspect Rudra.Rudra and Mahadeva are admittedly Vaidik gods.Rudra is described as having bows and arrows and has hundred heads and thousand eyes (S.B.IV.l.l.6.; Yajur Veda III.27).Mahadeva is Maham devah, the great God (S.B.VI.l.3.16).It appears that the Mantras of the different aspects of Mahadeva, which are even now used by Tantriks, were known and used by the Vaidik people.I cannot, however, trace the name Mahesa in Vaidik literature.Shiva can be identified with Rudra Susheva, who is a kind god (S.B.V.4.4.12).Mahadeva (Soma) is clad in a tiger skin which can be traced in Vaidik literature (S.B.V.3.5.3; V.4.1.11).Rudra is black, in the Tantras as well as in the Vedas.He is the same as Manyu with a Devi on each side of him (S.B.IX.l.1.6; XI.6.1.12 and 13).In this connection, we must not fail to note some of the attributes of Vaidik Nirriti.Nirriti is black and is a terrible Devi and punishes those who do not offer Soma to her.She is the Devi of misfortunes and removes all misfortunes.She is the genetrix and she is fond of the cremation ground (S.B.VII.2.1; A.B.IV.2.4.) The Tantras direct the worship also of Ganesha, Kartika and Vishnu, for whose worship the Sama-Vidhana-Brahmana prescribes the singing of certain Samans, known as the Vinayaka Samhita (S.V., Skanda-Samhita (S.V.3.2.l.4) and the Vishnu-Samhita (S.U.3.l.3.9) respectively.The Tantras also direct the use of certain figures which are called Yantras.These may be of various kinds and forms and may be used for various purposes.One of these which is constantly used, is a triangle within a square (M.N.T.Chap.V) and this can traced to the rules for the preparation of the Agnikshetra, or the Fire Altar of the Vaidik people (S.B.VI.l.l.6).Another curious circumstance in connection with the altar, is, that both in the Vaidik and the Tantrik ritual, the heads of five animals are used in its preparation (S.B.VI.2.l.5-8).The worship of the Lingam is foreshadowed by the Vaidik Deity Vishnu Shipivishta (R.V.VII.1001, etc., Nirukta V.2.2) and the serpent which twines round Devas or Devis is foreshadowed by the Sarparajñi, the Serpent Queen (S.B.IV.6.9.17) who is the same as Vach.http://www.sacred-texts.com/tantra/sas/sas04.htm (21 of 22)07/03/2005 16:02:23Chapter Four: Tantra Shastra and VedaThe facts collected here will, it is hoped, enable impartial readers to come to a definite conclusion as to the relationship of the Vaidik to the Tantrik ritual.Next: Chapter Five: The Tantras and the Religion of the Shaktashttp://www.sacred-texts.com/tantra/sas/sas04 [ Pobierz całość w formacie PDF ]