Home HomeLarry Elliott, Dan Atkinson The Gods that Failed; How Blind Faith in Markets Has Cost Us Our Future (2009)Wakacyjna miłoœć (1996) Ann Major, Laura Parker, Mary Lynn BaxterOleg Kalugin Spymaster, My Thirty two Years in Intelligence and Espionage Against the West (2009)Richard Brent Turner Jazz Religion, the Second Line, and Black New Orleans (2009)Andrea Orzoff Battle for the Castle; The Myth of Czechoslovakia in Europe, 1914 1948 (2009)Nichols Mary Panowie z Klubu Piccadilly 06 Misja komandoraDuncan Kelly Lineages of Empire; The Historical Roots of British Imperial Thought (2009)Mary Brendan Dumne i piekne 04 Gra w sekretyKhalil Marrar The Arab Lobby and US Foreign Policy (2009)William J. Palmer The Films of the Nineties; The Decade of Spin (2009)(1)

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.The Dominance of the Market as Mechanism and MetaphorWhile much of the suffering endured by the world s children arises from anumber of interacting factors, it cannot be denied that the spread of globalmarket capitalism plays a key role especially as it relates to root causes of in-justice in poverty.While advocates claim that free markets hold the key to thesuccessful distribution of the world s resources and to development amongpeoples, the expansion of markets seems to have brought prosperity to a rela-tive few at the expense of many.Markets have their own logic and language: supply, demand, free entry, ra-tional choice, promotion of self-interest (however  enlightened that interestmight be), the maximization of profit and the minimization of risk.Marketscan be an effective way to distribute goods but there is little if anything inthe logic of the market itself to secure a measure of equality or guard againstthe exploitation of some who cannot exercise the same freedoms as those inplaces of privilege and power.Children figure largely in this exploited popu-lation.Neither the advantages of profit nor the burdens of risk are equallyshared.This has become painfully clear as major corporations fail, and 26 Chapter 1employees and shareholders suffer while executives walk away from the debriswith millions of dollars.It has been argued persuasively that the market s role in the distributionof some goods of social living should be extremely limited if not eliminated.One example receiving much needed attention is the health care market.Ifaccess to health care is a basic human right, then it cannot be left to the whimsof the market to provide that access to all people irrespective of their abilityto pay for it.Controversies over access to pharmaceuticals, particularly inthe countries of the developing world struggling under the crushing weightof HIV, AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria, have prompted discussions aboutthe limits of the market, the regulation of industries, trade agreements, andpatent law.21The dominance of the market has brought on a proliferation of marketmetaphors and philosophical assumptions into areas of social life that hadheretofore been considered immune from the market s cold calculations thefamily and educational institutions figure among these.The following sec-tions will explore several axes along which children participate in the marketas a means of distributing goods and services and also the ways in which chil-dren are impacted by the expansion of consumerism.Children s Labor and WorkChief among the ways in which many of the world s children are active inthe market is through their labor.Our reading of the signs of the times forchildren revealed staggering numbers of children who are engaged in wagelabor much of it in  especially horrific circumstances. Iqbal Masih s storyin Pakistan stands as one example of factory labor in dehumanizing condi-tions and undertaken to satisfy a family debt rather than for a wage.The phe-nomenon of child labor is complex and is more of a global problem (includ-ing countries in the industrialized north) than we might first realize.In the United States, as in other industrialized nations of the northernhemisphere, child labor is viewed primarily as a problem of the developingworld and there are periodic bursts of outrage when it is discovered thatconsumer goods purchased here have been produced in factories that employchildren in other parts of the world.Unfortunately some of this outrage isprompted by celebrity involvement in the scandal rather than sought afterknowledge about the status of the world s children.Child labor as a socialproblem may be part of our history, but surely not part of our present.Oneresearcher in Britain noted that when asked about child labor, respondents re-ferred to existing legislation that prevents abuse and monitors the conditions Reading the Signs of the Times 27of children who work.Most people articulated some widely held assumptions:that child work is a minority experience; it involves  light tasks deemed ap-propriate for children; and that existing legislation effectively controls childlabor practices.To the limited extent that children work, the portrait of thatwork is idealized [ Pobierz całość w formacie PDF ]