Home HomePeter Berling Dzieci Graala 01 Dzieci GraalaeBooks.PL.Izrael.Szahak. Zydowskie.Dzieje.i.Religia. Polityka.Żydzi.Izrael.Kultura.Cywilizacja.Historia.Państwo.Polska.Ojczyzna.Honor.Europa.Kresy.Rosja.Niemcy.Władza.Spisek.doda.Książka.KsiążkiMartin Folly Historical Dictionary of U.S. Diplomacy from World War I through World War II (2010)Blatty William Peter Egzorcysta 01 Egzorcysta(1)1505 1864, HistoriaPolski 1764 1864 3Masterton Graham, Masterton Vicki Saga historyczna Smak rajuPeter Duncan Russian Messianism, Third Rome, Holy Revolution, Communism and After (2000)From Satan's Crown to the Holy Grail Emeralds in Myth Magic and History by Diane Morgan (2007)Raymond F. Betts, Lyz Bly A History of Popular Culture; More of Everything, Faster and Brighter (2004)Roberts Nora Trzy siostry

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.But this ever younger sexuality affected the more general image ofvulnerability, as well.For, while full innocence was gone, there was noentirely acceptable, generally agreed-upon model to put in its stead.Soparents worried that their children faced new dangers, even as a certaindegree of change seemed unavoidable.Fears of venereal disease or,later, AIDS obviously fed anxiety as well.New Realities in Day-to-Day LifeSeveral components of the new emphasis on the need to protect chil-dren reflected objective changes in children s lives.By 1920, the UnitedStates was a predominantly urban society.Automobiles and other man-ifestations of contemporary technology were not child-friendly.Indeed,there was a deep tension between the high rhetorical value now placedon children the priceless child and the fact that contemporary lifecreated new hazards in the home and new impediments to the free 44 ANXIOUS PARENTSmovement of children outside the home.The issue went beyond safetyspecifics, though these were important.The larger parental realizationthat modern society endangered children could motivate wider protec-tive impulses.More than technology was involved.We will see, in laterchapters, how a concern about children s vulnerability applied to large,impersonal bureaucracies for example, the contemporary school sys-tems and to consumer agents preying on children for example, thecomic book industry.Enthusiasts liked to argue that the 20th century was unprecedent-edly focused on the child, that it was indeed the  century of the child.In fact, key realities pointed in the opposite direction, leading to newlevels of parental anxiety and an objective grasp of children s frailty, atleast in this new context.Even aside from the danger of new technology,Americans were not fully comfortable with the society developingaround them.The 1920s, for example, saw the peak of the Chicagoschool of sociology, which emphasized the pathologies of urban life.The deep American commitment to suburbanization was a key reactionto discomforts of this sort, though it did not resolve major aspects of thegap between children and modernity.For the many immigrants adjusting to American life in the firstquarter of the century, urban unfamiliarity was compounded bystrangeness in language and culture.How could parents care for chil-dren exposed to so many alien influences? It was easy for critics of im-migrants, but also for immigrant parents themselves, to find new prob-lems in childhood in this setting, for, in terms of cultures of origin, chil-dren were in fact more vulnerable in the new environment.There were other new realities, as well, even closer to the middle-class home.The early 20th century saw the reduction of three tradi-tional buffers between parents and children in middle- class house-holds.The use of live-in domestic servants declined.This developmentwas welcome in some ways; complaints about how crudely servantstreated children was a staple of 19th-century women s conversation.But the fact was that, with servants less available, mothers and, to someextent, fathers had to put more time into the child-rearing process.Simultaneously, in the 1920s, the common 19th-century pattern ofolder parents, particularly mothers, living with one of their adult chil-dren and helping out with the grandkids began to unravel as older peo-ple increasingly lived separately.Grandparents might still be within THE VULNERABLE CHILD 45hailing distance, by phone or via a weekend drive, but they were notavailable for daily assistance.Again, the results were mixed, and therewere no loud complaints about what was a major household change.One obvious outcome was the need for more outside advice and thegreater readiness to believe that the past generation s standards werethis generation s hit list.By the 1940s, a majority of American parents,when polled, claimed that it was vital to raise their kids differently fromthe way their own parents had raised them.Here was an attitude thatwas repeated often in subsequent decades and that in fact exaggeratedgenerational change (as in the recurrent inventing of the  new father-ing ).But here was an attitude, regardless of accuracy, that both re-flected and encouraged the growing distancing of grandparents.Finally, the steady reduction in the birthrate, again led by the mid-dle class, reduced the number of older siblings available to help takecare of the younger ones.Increased school and activity requirementscontributed to the same result.Siblings were few in number, often quiteclose in age (a particular and odd feature of the baby-boom generationfrom the mid-1940s to the mid-1960s); and there was a decreasing sensethat it was legitimate to ask for babysitting help too often anyway (partof the new confusions about work that we deal with in chapter 5).A comment that appeared in the Literary Digest in 1925 suggests theeffect of changes in the household in increasing parental anxiety:  Inthese days when parents have more time to observe their children, andhave fewer children to observe, unusual attention is being given.tothe natural activities of children.This leads to alarm on the part of thosewho may not be sufficiently informed as to what is normal child con-duct. The author went on to note how stylish children s behavior prob-lems were becoming in this context. The mother who dares admit thather children have no behavior problems casts doubt upon her ability torecognize one [ Pobierz całość w formacie PDF ]